GlOSSARY / ÃËÎÑÑÀÐÈÉ .

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A

AC switching power supply A pulse–width modulation, AC to DC converter.

Amp or Ampere The standard unit of measure for electrical strength defined as the amount of current that would be produced by an electromotive force of one volt acting through a resistance of one ohm.

ASI Asynchronous serial interface, also referred to as DVB ASI.

Auto–detecting The capability of a unit to automatically sense and set its configuration to match the operational parameters of an incoming signal.

Auto–ranging The capability of a power supply unit to accept variable voltage rates.

Auto–sensing The capability of a power supply unit to detect variable voltage rates.

B

Baseband multimedia The non–modulated transmission of audio and video signals.

Baud Rate A measure of transmission speed over a transmission medium.

BIST Built–in–self–test.

Bit rate Refers to the number of bits of data transmitted over a given time period. See also bps.

BNC British Naval Connector—A type of connector featuring a locking pin on the female end and a cut–out groove for the pin on the male end.

bps A ratio of the number of bits of data transmitted to the number of seconds elapsed, expressed as bits per second.

Buffer In data transmission, a buffer is a temporary storage location for information being sent or received. A buffer is usually located between two different devices that have different abilities or speeds for handling the data.

Buffer overflow Within a data buffering system, the condition occurring whenever the number of data bits entering the buffer exceeds the data capacity of the buffer.

Buffer underflow Within a data buffering system, the condition occurring whenever the number of data bits entering the buffer is not sufficient to maintain the buffer minimum output rate.

Built –in–self –test Evaluative procedures residing isn the micro–controller which are used to provide diagnostic information regarding its operational state.

C

C–band A portion of the electromagnetic spectrum used heavily for satellite transmissions. The uplink frequency is at 6GHz, and the downlink is at 4GHz. Traditional applications include voice communications, video conferencing, and broadcast TV and radio.

Cable Loss Loss of signal quality within cable, typically due to impedance as a result of excessive cable length or material construction.

Carrier Offset The frequency difference in Hertz measured between the programmed receive frequency and the actual frequency received.

Channel A single path for transmitting electric or electromagnetic signals.

CSA Canadian Standards Association—The Canadian counterpart of the U.S. Underwriters Laboratories.

D

Data Typically refers to the information content of a signal including video, audio, graphic, or character–based information.

Data Bits Within a data packet, the bits which represent the information content of a packet. See also Data.

dB Decibel—A unit of measure of signal strength, usually the relation between a transmitted signal and a standard signal source. An increase of 3dB results in a doubling of the signal strength. An increase of 6dB results in a quadrupling of the signal strength. Conversely, a decrease of 3dB and 6dB results in a reduction in signal strength by one half and three quarters, respectively.

Decode To convert a coded signal into its original form.

Demod Demodulation. See Demodulate.

Demodulate To retrieve an electrical signal from a carrier signal or wave.

DSNG - Digital Satellite Newsgathering is the means by which news is gathered for television and radio broadcast using digital satellite communications

DS3 A commercial leased line that has the capacity to handle up to 44.763Mbps of digital information.

dsec Deci –seconds—A measurement of time that is equal to 0.1 seconds. For example, 15dsec is equal to 1. 5 seconds.

DTE Data Termination Equipment—A generic name for any device that generates information to be transmitted to another device or over a transmission system. For example, visual display units, computers, and office workstations.

DVB Digital Video Broadcast —A set of standards providing the specifications for transmission and reception of digitally processed broadcasting signals.

DR Data Rate

E

ENG

Since ENG reduces the delay between capture of the footage and broadcast, it meant that the news gathering and the reporting process became one continuous cycle, with little pause between arriving at a news site and putting the story on the air. Coupled with live microwave and/or satellite trucks, reporters were able to show live what was happening, bringing the audience into news events as they happened. CNN began its news transmissions in 1980, as ENG technologies were emerging. The technology was still developing and was yet to be integrated with satellites and microwave, which caused some problems in early CNN transmissions. However, ENG proved to be a crucial development for all television news.[citation needed] Television news recorded using videocassette recorders was easier to edit, duplicate and distribute. Over time,[when?] video production processes passed from broadcast engineers to television producers and television writers. This made the process quicker and more reliable.[citation needed] However, initially the ENG cameras and recorders were heavier and bulkier than their film equivalents.[citation needed] This restricted camera operators ability to escape danger or hurry toward a news event. Editing equipment was expensive and each scene had to be searched out on the master recording.

Eb/No

Eb=Energy per information bit; No=Noise energy per Hertz—Signal energy with respect to noise, expressed in energy per bit/noise in 1Hz bandwidth.

F

Fault A disturbance that impairs or disrupts normal operations.

FIFO First In, First Out—A type of data buffer.

Flyaway -transportable earth station used for SNG which can be broken down and transported in cases to location

FPGA Field Programmable Gate Array —A chip that can be reprogrammed for various uses.

Functional Block A component that performs a specific process within a unit. For example, a video encoder is a functional block within the TE300A.

G

G.703 ITU–T Recommendation G. 703, “Physical /Electrical Characteristics of Hierachical Digital Interfaces.”—An interface protocol used for terrestrial transmissions that operates at multiples of 64 kbps PCM.

H

Hz Hertz—A measurement of frequency in cycles of a waveform occurring in one second. One Hertz is one cycle per second. HPA High power amplifier— A device which provides the high power necessary to transmit radio signals from an earth terminal to a satellite.

I

IEC International Electrotechnical Commission—A Geneva–based organization that sets international electrical and electronics standards and includes national committees from over 40 countries.

IF Intermediate Frequency—1. A frequency to which a signal wave is shifted locally as an intermediate step in transmission or reception 2. The fixed frequency resulting from heterodyning the incoming signal with a signal from a local oscillator.

IFL Interfacility link—Typically refers to an interfacility link cable used to connect a low–noise block (LNB) to an IRD. Often this IFL carries power from the IRD to the LNB.

IF Looptest A diagnostic, troubleshooting, or operational test procedure designed to test operate satellite equipment by passing video and audio test signals through an encoder and satellite modulator, looping the output of the modulator to the input of the IRD, and monitoring the video and audio output of the IRD.

Impedance The total opposition of a device offers to the flow of alternating current. Measured in Ohms and varies at different frequencies.

Integrated Receiver/Decoder Within a satellite downlink system, a piece of equipment used to demodulate and decode a transport stream.

IRD See Integrated Receiver/Decoder.

K

kbps Kilobits per second— A ratio of 1000 bits transmitted per second. For example, 10Kbps is equal to 10,000 bits transmitted per second.

kSps Kilosample or kilosymbol per second—A ratio of 1000 samples or symbols transmitted per second. For example, 10kSps is equal to 10,000 samples or symbols transmitted per second.

Ku–band A portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the 12GHz to 14GHz range. Used for satellites, employing 14GHz on the uplink and 11GHz on the downlink in support of such applications as broadcast TV for man–on–the street interviews and other situations requiring a small, portable dish. Ku is also used in Direct Broadcast Satellite (DBS) systems, or Direct Satellite System (DSS).

L

L–band 1. Portion of the electromagnetic spectrum commonly used in satellite applications, with frequencies in the 390MHz to 1550MHz range. 2. For an IRD, the frequency received from the LNB, existing in a range of 950MHz to 2050MHz.

LCD Liquid crystal display—A display technology that uses liquid crystals to form displayed characters.

LED Light emitting diode—A display technology that uses a light emitting diode to form displayed characters.

Line Resolution The degree of sharpness of a displayed video image.

LNB Low Noise Block —A combination low noise amplifier and local oscillator used in some satellite downconverters.

LO Local Oscillator—A device within a frequency converter that is used to reduce or increase the frequency of the signal passed from the device input to output.

M

Mbps Megabits per second—A ratio of 1,000,000 bits transmitted per second. For example, 15Mbps is equal to 15,000,000 bits transmitted per second.

MCPC See Multi–channel–per–carrier.
Mono Channel Referring to one audio output not contained in a stereo mix

MPEG Moving Picture Experts Group—A joint committee of the International Standards Organization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). 2. A series of hardware and software standards designed to reduce the storage requirements of digital video. 3. A compression scheme for full motion video.

MPEG–1 Refers to ISO/IEC standards developed in 1991 by the ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29 WG11, Moving Picture Experts Group.

MPEG–2 Refers to ISO/IEC standards 13818 –1 (Systems), 13818–2 (Video), 13818–3 (Audio), 13818–4 (Compliance).

MTBF Mean time between failures—The length of time a user may reasonably expect a device or system to work before an incapacitating fault occurs.

Multi–channel–per–carrier Two or more video programs transmitted> per digital transport stream.

M

Mbps Megabits per second—A ratio of 1,000,000 bits transmitted per second. For example, 15Mbps is equal to 15,000,000 bits transmitted per second.

MCPC See Multi–channel–per–carrier.

Mono Channel Referring to one audio output not contained in a stereo mix.

MPEG Moving Picture Experts Group—A joint committee of the International Standards Organization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). 2. A series of hardware and software standards designed to reduce the storage requirements of digital video. 3. A compression scheme for full motion video.

MPEG–1 Refers to ISO/IEC standards developed in 1991 by the ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29 WG11, Moving Picture Experts Group.

MPEG–2 Refers to ISO/IEC standards 13818 –1 (Systems), 13818–2 (Video), 13818–3 (Audio), 13818–4 (Compliance).

MPEG–4 Refers to ISO/IEC

MTBF Mean time between failures—The length of time a user may reasonably expect a device or system to work before an incapacitating fault occurs.

Multi–channel–per–carrier Two or more video programs transmitted per digital transport stream.

N

Network Management System A system designed to keep a network operating near maximum efficiency and to provide operator interface to the managed system for configuring, isolating and correcting faults, and monitoring operational performance.

Network Management System A system designed to keep a network operating near maximum efficiency and to provide operator interface to the managed system for configuring, isolating and correcting faults, and monitoring operational performance.

Non–volatile, field–programmable memory A type of Flash ROM used to store configuration parameters. The ROM memory is configurable by the user but will not clear if the unit loses power.

NTSC 1. National Television Standards Committee of the Electronic Industries Association (EIA) — A committee which determines the video standards for broadcast in the U.S. 2. The U.S. standard for video broadcast which uses a 3.57945 MHz subcarrier whose phase varies with the instantaneous hue of the televised color, and whose amplitude varies with the instantaneous saturation of the color. A single frame (picture) in the standard consists of 525 horizontal scanning lines. Frames are scanned at the rate of 29.97 frames per second. 3. Used to describe the standard method of television transmission in the U.S., Canada, japan, Central America, and parts of South America.

O

Outside broadcasting (OB)


OUTSIDE BROADCASTING (OB) is the electronic field production (EFP) of television or radio programmes (typically to cover television news and sports television events) from a mobile remote broadcast television studio. Professional video camera and microphone signals come into the production truck for processing, recording and possibly transmission. The mobile production control room (PCR) is known as a "production truck", "scanner" (a BBC term), "mobile unit", "remote truck", "live truck", "OB van" or "live eye". In the United States an "OB van" is smaller in size than a production truck and generally require two or three people in the field to manage. For instance broadcast journalism news reporters providing live television, local news in the field outside a formal television studio.
A typical OB van is usually divided into five parts.
Parts of the television crew are located in the first and largest part is the video production area. The television director, technical director, assistant director, character generator (CG) operator and television producers usually sit in front of a wall of video monitors. The technical director sits in front of the video switcher. The video monitors show all the video feeds from various sources, including computer graphics, professional video cameras, video tape recorder (VTR), video servers and slow-motion replay machines. The wall of monitors also contains a preview monitor showing what could be the next source on air (does not have to be depending on how the video switcher is set up) and a program monitor that shows the feed currently going to air or being recorded. The keyed dirty feed (with digital on-screen graphic) is what is actually transmitted back to the central studio that is controlling the outside broadcast. A clean feed (without the graphics) could be sent to other trucks for use in their production. The video switcher is usually operated by one person called the technical director (TD) and is responsible for switching the video sources to air as directed. Behind the directors there is usually a desk with monitors for the editors to operate. It is essential that the directors and editors are in communication with each other during events, so that replays and slow-motion shots can be selected and aired. The "production room" in most sporting events has a graphics operator and sometimes a font coordinator who are in charge of the graphics, statistics, and the showing of the names of commentators or the players to be shown on air. Most sports also have a "box operator" (or "bug box operator") who controls the graphic seen either on the bottom or top of the screen that shows the score as seen at home. These operators can also show on-air stats, control the clock, and many times are also in charge of showing sponsors during play.
The second part of a van is where the audio engineer has an audio mixer (being fed with all the various audio feeds: reporters, commentary, on-field microphones, etc.). The audio engineer can control which channels are added to the output and follows instructions from the director. They relay the information from producers and directors to their A2's who typically set up the audio cables and equipment throughout the arenas and the booth where the commentators sit. The audio engineer normally also has a dirty feed monitor to help with the synchronization of sound and video.
The third part of the truck is the VTR area. The tape area has a collection of machines including video servers and may also house additional power supplies or computer equipment. The "tape room" has EVS (or LSM) operators who have one or more cameras that go into their machines and can be played back for replays when an exciting or important play occurs during the game. EVS operators also play replay rollouts that lead into commercial breaks or show the highlights of the event at the end of play. These operators also can play back in slow motion or pause to show a key part of the action. br> The fourth part is the video control area where the professional video cameras are controlled using camera control units (CCU) by one or two operators, to make sure that the iris is at the correct exposure and that all the cameras look the same. These operators can shade, balance, and focus the cameras from this position inside the truck. This area is controlled by an operator called a V1 and depending on the size of the show and/or the broadcast company may have a V2.
The fifth part is transmission where the signal is monitored by and engineered for quality control purposes and is transmitted or sent to other trucks. The transmission is monitored by the truck engineers to ensure the people at home have a good picture and a high quality signal output.

Ohm A unit of measure for resistance symbolized by the Greek letter omega W. Defined as the electrical resistance between two points of a conductor when a constant difference of potential of 1 volt, applied between these points produces in this conductor a current of 1 ampere, the conductor not being the source of any electromotive force.

Overhead A number of data bits used for error–checking, control, timing, and other communications functions that are inserted in the> data stream as an additional to the individual data rates of the transport stream components. Overhead must be included when calculating the aggregate transport stream output data rate.

P

PAL Phase Alteration Line—1. A broadcast television standard that uses a subcarrier which is alternated 90 degrees in phase from one line to the next to minimize hue errors in color transmission. 2. The color television transmission standard used in Europe and many other parts of the world.

PAL–I A European color television transmission standard that uses a 4.43361875 MHz sub carrier. A single frame in this standard consists of 625 scanning line, and frames are scanned at a rate of 25 frames per second.

PAL–M A Color television transmission standard that uses a 3.57561149MHz subcarrier. A single frame is this standard consists of 525 scanning lines, and frames are scanned at a rate of 30 frames per second.

PGCA A proprietary conditional access method used by Tiernan equipment that provides basic signal protection and the ability to authorize individual IRDs.

PID Packet Identifier—Within a data packet, the bits used for its identification.

Pixel Picture Element—1. The smallest unit of area of a video screen image that can be turned on or off, or varied in intensity. 2. The smallest division that makes up the raster scan line for a video display.

PSI Program Specific Information.

Q

QPSK Quadrature Phase Shift Keying—The transmission of 2 bits per symbol, with each symbol being a phase range of the sine wave. In this fashion, a 2: 1 compression ratio is achieved, resulting in a doubling of the efficiency with which a circuit is employed.

R

RCD Remote Control Device—A computer terminal used to configure and monitor an encoder or an IRD without using the unit’s control front panel.

RF Input The L-band, C-band, or KU-band input to an IRD.

S

SATELLITE TRUCK

A satellite truck is a mobile communications satellite Earth station, typically mounted on a truck chassis on a platform allowing satellite transmission from any location that the production truck can reach, provided a line of sight (direct view) to the desired satellite is available

Sample Rate The number of times per second that an analog signal is measured and converted to a binary number in order to convert the analog signal to a digital signal.

Satellite downlink frequency Within a satellite system, the frequency, either C–band or Ku–band, of the signal transmitted to the receiving dish.

SNG - SATELLITE NEWSGATHERING

SNG - Satellite Newsgathering is the means by which news is gathered for television and radio broadcast using satellite communications

SCPC See Single–channel–per–carrier

Single–channel –per –carrier One video program transmitted per digital transport stream.

SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol—A widely used network monitoring and control protocol. Data is passed from SNMP agents, which are hardware and/or software processes reporting activity in each network device (hub, router, bridge, etc.) to the workstation console used to oversee the network. The agents return information contained in a Management Information Base, which is a data structure that defines what is obtainable from the device and what can be controlled.

Sps 1. Samples per second—A ratio of the number of times that an analog signal is measured and converted to a binary number to seconds elapsed, expressed as samples per second. 2. Symbols per second—A ratio of symbols transmitted to seconds elapsed expressed as symbols per second. Commonly used to express the speed at which QPSK symbols are transmitted.

Stereo Pair Two audio signals consisting of sound reproduction of the same audio source.

Symbol In digital transmission, a recognizable electrical state that is associated with a signal element, which is an electrical signal within a defined period of time.

SR-

U

UL Underwriters Laboratories.

V

VAC Volts AC.

VDC Vol t s DC.

VDE Verband Deutscher Elektrotechniker—The German counterpart of the U.S. Underwriters Laboratories.

Viterbi Code Rate Forward error– correction scheme.

Vpp Volts peak–to–peak.

VSAT:
Very Small Aperture Terminal , or to corporate comms chiefs, a 1 to 4 metre dish on your roof linking the central hub (typically your European HQ) to all your remote offices and facilitie s - and keeping them all in constant immediate contact.